"The practice of meditation is basically a process of getting to know yourself by becoming familiar with your mind. The Buddhist view of the mind is that it's always awake. Its nature is awareness and compassion. To discover and enjoy the mind's nature fully, the Buddha taught various methods of meditation. Whatever meditation practices we may do, they are all intended to increase our mindfulness and awareness, strengthen our sense of inner peace, and improve our ability to deal with our emotions as well."
-- from "Instructions for Meditation Practice"
Buddha: On the Road to Freedom by Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
Here you'll find instructions for a recommended meditation posture, and for three types of sitting meditation, also called shamatha, or calm abiding meditation. Two of the three methods are based on observing the breath, and one is based on observing an external object.